Industry News

Mexico has just released the first five peso coins from two series that commemorate
The centennial of beginning of the Mexican Revolution and the bicentennial of the independence movement of Mexico. These were authorized by decree of President Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa , and published on December 7, 2007.

The decree dictates that these coins shall be 25.5mm, bimetallic with the center being of Bronze-aluminum (92% copper, 6% aluminum and 2% nickel). The weight for the center is 3.25 grams.

The outer ring is made up of 16% - 18% chrome, .74% nickel, .12 % carbon, 1% silicon, 1% manganese, .03% sulfur, .04% phosphorus, and the remainder iron. The weight of this outer ring is 3.82 grams.

All of the coins in these two series have a common obverse, the Mexican National Coat Of Arms with the inscription “ESTADO UNIDOS MEXICANOS” with a wreath below.

The reverses of the Independence series in the center have the date and denomination with the bust and names of heroes of the Independence movement. The outer ring has the inscription “BICENTENARIO DE LA INDENDENICIA, MEXICO, 2010

The reverses of the Revolution series in the center have the date and denomination with
the bust and names of personages from the Revolution period, and the outer ring has the
significance of the doubled “00” in the date is unknown at this time

Numbers in the decree lists the personages honored on these reverses. The importance of this numbering is unknown at this time as four from the independence series and five in the Revolution series have been issued and are not in order.
The personages so honored as listed in the decree are:


Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811).
José Maria Morelos y Pavon (1765-1815).
Vicente Guerrero (1783-1831
Ignacio Allende (1769-1811).
Ignacio Lopez Rayón (1773-1832).
Francisco Javier Mina (1789-1817).
Mariano Matamoros (1770-1814).
Hermenegildo Galeana (1772-1814).
Guadalupe Victoria (1786-1843).
Pedro Moreno (1775-1817).
Nicolás Bravo (1776-1854).
Servando Teresa de Mier (1765-1827).
Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez (1768-1829).
Leona Vicario (1789-1842).
Agustin de Iturbide (1783-1824).
José Maria Cos (?-1819).
Miguel Ramos Arizpe (1775-1843).
Francisco Primo de Verdad y Ramos (17768-1808).
Carlos Maria de Bustamente (1774-1847).


Francisco I. Madero (1873-1913).
Emiliano Zapata (1883-1919).
Venustiano Carranza (1850-1920).
Alvaro Obregón (1880-1928).
Francisco Villa (1876-1923).
La Soldadera.
Ricardo Flores Magón (1873-1922).
José Maria Pino Suárez (1869-1913).
Francisco J. Múgica (1884-1954).
Eulalio Gutiérrez (1881-1939).
Belisario Dominguez (1863-1913).
Otilio Montaño (1880?-1917).
Luis Cabrera (1876-1954).
Carmen Serdán (1875-1948).
Filomeno Mata (1845-1911).
Andres Molina Enriquez, 1868-1939).
Herbero Jara (1866-1939).
José Vasconcelos (1881-1959).


# 5, Ignacio López Rayón, (1773 – 1832) was a lawyer and an early supporter of Hidalgo from Tlalpujahua who became Hidalgo’s secretary and an insurgent authority. He was the force behind the newspaper of the independence movement, El Despertador Americano.

Following the defeat of the insurgents at the Calderón Bridge he went north to Saltillo to continue the fight. Returning to Michoacán he settled at Zitácuaro, where in August 1811 he established the Supreme Governing Junta, and served as the President. This Junta issued many laws, rules and proclamations. After Zitácuaro fell to the royalists the Junta existed as a migrating government until 1813 when it was incorporated into the Chilpangingo Congress.

Ignacio López Rayón‘s most important contribution to the Independence movement was his political involvement in the Chilpancingo Congress and the Apartzingán Constitution, which established the basis for Mexico’s constitutional principles.

#6, Francisco Xavier Mina, (1789 – 1817) was a Spaniard who was in exile in London, and met supporters of the Mexican Independence movement. In 1816 he came to Mexico to prepare a military force to take the fight to New Spain. In 1817 he landed in Soto la Marina where he started a military campaign that resulted in victories such as the Hacienda de Peotillos and El Arrasttradero. He joined forces with Pedro Moreno in the battles Sombrero and Los Remedios. He was captured in October 1817 and executed shortly thereafter.

#7, Mariano Matamoros (1770 – 1814) was a Priest who in the early part of the uprising was imprisoned for his support of the insurgent cause. He escaped in 1811 and joined Morelos and his insurgent forces. He showed his military skills at the battles of Oaxaca, Izucar and Cuautla among others. He was captured at Valladolid and executed by firing squad in February 1814.

#19, Carlos Maria de Bustamante (1774 – 1848) was a noted historian as well as a lawyer who was supporter of the Independence movement. He knew he would be persecuted for publishing the news, but he joined the Morelos forces and published the Correo del Sur. He took part in the Chilpancingo Congress and edited the act of Independence. He was captured in 1818 in San Juan de Ulúa. Pardoned in 1819 he became politically active against Iturbide and was again imprisoned until 1823, when he joined congress.


#4, Alvaro Obregón (1880 – 1928) was from Sonora, whose military skills made him a great asset to constitutionalism. He showed his military skills in battles with the federal forces and the Conventionalist’s forces of Pancho Villa’s Northern Division at the Bajio region. He was opposed to Carranza’s moderate positions and he proclaimed the Plan of Agua Prieta against First Constitutionalist Chief.

He served as President from 1920 to 1924 where he was able to he promoted agricultural policies among other things, such as the started the application of the Constitution’s anticlerical laws. He was reelected President in 1928, but was assassinated by a religious fanatic, José de León before he could take office.

#5, Francisco *Pancho” Villa (1876 – 1923 was born as Doroteo Arango in Durango and worked at many occupations in his early years but turned to being a bandit and assuming the name Francisco “Pancho” Villa from an earlier bandit by that name.
In 1910 he joined Madero’s anti-reelectionist movement as a colonel in his army. May 10, 1911 Villa along with Pascual Orozco captured Ciudad Juárez, and Madero established his headquarters there.

In 1912 Villa returned to Chihuahua and later joined Madero’s federal army under command of Victoriano Huerta who disliked Villa and jailed and sentenced him to death. Madero intervened and got the death sentence rescinded. Villa escaped from prison January 8, 1913 and fled to El Paso. After the assassination of Madero Villa returned to Mexico to fight against Huerta leading the División del Norte. On his way to Mexico City he seized San Pedro de la Colonias and Torreón. He was instructed not to take part in the Zacatecas attack. Carranza and Villa had a falling out over this and Villa resigned his command and was named governor of Chihuahua.

On August 20, 1914 Carranza came to Mexico City to implement his Plan de Guadalupe. In October 1914 Carranza with all the Revolutionary leaders organized the Convention of Aguascalientes. No agreement could be reached. Villa was reelected as chief of the north division. In 1915 Villa suffered major defeats at Cellaya, León and Aguascalientes.
In 1920 after Carranza’a assassination Villa promised then President Huerta he would never take arms again. He retired to his hacienda in Canutillo, and on July 20, 1923 Villa was shot to death.

#7, Ricardo Flores Magón (1873 – 1992) along with his brothers Jesús and Enrique began publishing Regeneración, in August 1900 as a weekly anti Porfirismo newspaper. Ricardo, along with his brothers was jailed in the late spring of 1901 for attacking a political from Oaxaca, and confined to Belén prison for a year. After their release they continued their opposition by published columns in El Hijo de Ahuizote.

Imprisoned again, released and arrested again, they felt it best to go in exile in San Antonio and published Regeneración from there. He again moved to St.Louis to keep publishing the paper. Ricardo formed the Mexican Liberal party and in January 1911 promoted the Baja California uprising. Madero tried to bring Ricardo into his movement but Flores Magón would have no part of this and continued to be critical of Madero and later Victoriano Huerta. .His ideals of freedom and social justice were expressed in two theatrical works he wrote – Tierra y Libertad and Verdugos y Victimas. Ricardo Flores Magón was one of the most influential ideologists of the Mexican Revolution.

#17, Heriberto Jara (1866 – 1939 was a revolutionary from Veracruz who served as a General in the Constitutionalist Army, and a politician, having served as a congressional representative for Veracruz to the constitutional congress of Querétaro. He was part of the radical group that had a large part in the edition of Article 123, among others that gave profound meaning to the constitution. He was one of the first to graduate from the Antón Lizardo Naval Academy. In 1914 he directed the cadets from the academy against the North American invasion.

Following the Revolution he served in many political positions until his retirement from public life. He dedicated his life to attaining revolutionary ideals.

#18, José Vasconelos (1881 – 1959) was a lawyer who was a charter member of the Ateneo de la Juventud, of which a group of young thinkers who banded together and with a few others Vasconceslos formed a philosophical attack on materialism and positivism.

He served as Secretary of education under Obregón, and as rector of the National University. Throughout his career he inspired the teachers with a strong sense of nationalistic pride. Under adverse conditions he brought education to the rural masses, including the Indians, which he attempted to incorporate into the mainstream of mestizo society. During 1920 – 1924 over one thousand schools were built in rural México. During this period he also began a public library system.

In 1910 he joined the forces of Madero and later joined with Villa. He was a supporter of the Mexican visual arts, mainly the muralists. During his position as secretary of education he commissioned artists to paint murals on the walls of public buildings. And México’s artistic renaissance was originated. In 1929 he unsuccessfully ran for president.

The coins are currently retailing at $1.50 each from Lois and Don Bailey Numismatic Services, 250 D South Lyon Ave #139, Hemet CA 92543. Bailey’s are offering a subscription program, where by clients will receive periodical shipments as the coins are released.


1824 – 1872

By Don Bailey, NLG

First comprehensive update in over thirty years of the coinage of this financially important era of Mexico’s history.

84 pages, 52 different coin types plus several varieties of coins and tokens. User friendly; Printed on 28 pound paper, spiral bound, letter sized with heavy plastic covers.

The overall history of this subject is covered in an overview of all coins and a separate history for each entity and each entity has its’ own history with footnotes of historical information.


Send check $35.00 for book and shipping, payable to Don Bailey



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