MEXICO RELEASES NEW FIVE PESO
Mexico has just released the first five peso coins from two series
The centennial of beginning of the Mexican Revolution and the
bicentennial of the independence movement of Mexico. These were
authorized by decree of President Felipe de Jesús Calderón
Hinojosa , and published on December 7, 2007.
The decree dictates that these coins shall be 25.5mm, bimetallic
with the center being of Bronze-aluminum (92% copper, 6% aluminum
and 2% nickel). The weight for the center is 3.25 grams.
The outer ring is made up of 16% - 18% chrome, .74% nickel, .12
% carbon, 1% silicon, 1% manganese, .03% sulfur, .04% phosphorus,
and the remainder iron. The weight of this outer ring is 3.82
All of the coins in these two series have a common obverse, the
Mexican National Coat Of Arms with the inscription “ESTADO
UNIDOS MEXICANOS” with a wreath below.
The reverses of the Independence series in the center have the
date and denomination with the bust and names of heroes of the
Independence movement. The outer ring has the inscription “BICENTENARIO
DE LA INDENDENICIA, MEXICO, 2010”
The reverses of the Revolution series in the center have the date
and denomination with
the bust and names of personages from the Revolution period, and
the outer ring has the
inscription “CENTENARIO DE LA REVOLUTION MEXICO,
significance of the doubled “00” in the date is unknown
at this time
Numbers in the decree lists the personages honored on these reverses.
The importance of this numbering is unknown at this time as four
from the independence series and five in the Revolution series
have been issued and are not in order.
The personages so honored as listed in the decree are:
BICENTENARIO DE LA INDENDENICIA:
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811).
José Maria Morelos y Pavon (1765-1815).
Vicente Guerrero (1783-1831
Ignacio Allende (1769-1811).
Ignacio Lopez Rayón (1773-1832).
Francisco Javier Mina (1789-1817).
Mariano Matamoros (1770-1814).
Hermenegildo Galeana (1772-1814).
Guadalupe Victoria (1786-1843).
Pedro Moreno (1775-1817).
Nicolás Bravo (1776-1854).
Servando Teresa de Mier (1765-1827).
Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez (1768-1829).
Leona Vicario (1789-1842).
Agustin de Iturbide (1783-1824).
José Maria Cos (?-1819).
Miguel Ramos Arizpe (1775-1843).
Francisco Primo de Verdad y Ramos (17768-1808).
Carlos Maria de Bustamente (1774-1847).
CENTENARIO DE LA REVOLUTION:
Francisco I. Madero (1873-1913).
Emiliano Zapata (1883-1919).
Venustiano Carranza (1850-1920).
Alvaro Obregón (1880-1928).
Francisco Villa (1876-1923).
Ricardo Flores Magón (1873-1922).
José Maria Pino Suárez (1869-1913).
Francisco J. Múgica (1884-1954).
Eulalio Gutiérrez (1881-1939).
Belisario Dominguez (1863-1913).
Otilio Montaño (1880?-1917).
Luis Cabrera (1876-1954).
Carmen Serdán (1875-1948).
Filomeno Mata (1845-1911).
Andres Molina Enriquez, 1868-1939).
Herbero Jara (1866-1939).
José Vasconcelos (1881-1959).
INDEPENDENCE COINS ISSUED THUS FAR:
# 5, Ignacio López Rayón, (1773 – 1832) was
a lawyer and an early supporter of Hidalgo from Tlalpujahua who
became Hidalgo’s secretary and an insurgent authority. He
was the force behind the newspaper of the independence movement,
El Despertador Americano.
Following the defeat of the insurgents at the Calderón
Bridge he went north to Saltillo to continue the fight. Returning
to Michoacán he settled at Zitácuaro, where in August
1811 he established the Supreme Governing Junta, and served as
the President. This Junta issued many laws, rules and proclamations.
After Zitácuaro fell to the royalists the Junta existed
as a migrating government until 1813 when it was incorporated
into the Chilpangingo Congress.
Ignacio López Rayón‘s most important contribution
to the Independence movement was his political involvement in
the Chilpancingo Congress and the Apartzingán Constitution,
which established the basis for Mexico’s constitutional
#6, Francisco Xavier Mina, (1789 – 1817) was a Spaniard
who was in exile in London, and met supporters of the Mexican
Independence movement. In 1816 he came to Mexico to prepare a
military force to take the fight to New Spain. In 1817 he landed
in Soto la Marina where he started a military campaign that resulted
in victories such as the Hacienda de Peotillos and El Arrasttradero.
He joined forces with Pedro Moreno in the battles Sombrero and
Los Remedios. He was captured in October 1817 and executed shortly
#7, Mariano Matamoros (1770 – 1814) was a Priest who in
the early part of the uprising was imprisoned for his support
of the insurgent cause. He escaped in 1811 and joined Morelos
and his insurgent forces. He showed his military skills at the
battles of Oaxaca, Izucar and Cuautla among others. He was captured
at Valladolid and executed by firing squad in February 1814.
#19, Carlos Maria de Bustamante (1774 – 1848) was a noted
historian as well as a lawyer who was supporter of the Independence
movement. He knew he would be persecuted for publishing the news,
but he joined the Morelos forces and published the Correo del
Sur. He took part in the Chilpancingo Congress and edited the
act of Independence. He was captured in 1818 in San Juan de Ulúa.
Pardoned in 1819 he became politically active against Iturbide
and was again imprisoned until 1823, when he joined congress.
REVOLUTIONARY COINS ISSUED THUS FAR:
#4, Alvaro Obregón (1880 – 1928) was from Sonora,
whose military skills made him a great asset to constitutionalism.
He showed his military skills in battles with the federal forces
and the Conventionalist’s forces of Pancho Villa’s
Northern Division at the Bajio region. He was opposed to Carranza’s
moderate positions and he proclaimed the Plan of Agua Prieta against
First Constitutionalist Chief.
He served as President from 1920 to 1924 where he was able to
he promoted agricultural policies among other things, such as
the started the application of the Constitution’s anticlerical
laws. He was reelected President in 1928, but was assassinated
by a religious fanatic, José de León before he could
#5, Francisco *Pancho” Villa (1876 – 1923 was born
as Doroteo Arango in Durango and worked at many occupations in
his early years but turned to being a bandit and assuming the
name Francisco “Pancho” Villa from an earlier bandit
by that name.
In 1910 he joined Madero’s anti-reelectionist movement as
a colonel in his army. May 10, 1911 Villa along with Pascual Orozco
captured Ciudad Juárez, and Madero established his headquarters
In 1912 Villa returned to Chihuahua and later joined Madero’s
federal army under command of Victoriano Huerta who disliked Villa
and jailed and sentenced him to death. Madero intervened and got
the death sentence rescinded. Villa escaped from prison January
8, 1913 and fled to El Paso. After the assassination of Madero
Villa returned to Mexico to fight against Huerta leading the División
del Norte. On his way to Mexico City he seized San Pedro de la
Colonias and Torreón. He was instructed not to take part
in the Zacatecas attack. Carranza and Villa had a falling out
over this and Villa resigned his command and was named governor
On August 20, 1914 Carranza came to Mexico City to implement
his Plan de Guadalupe. In October 1914 Carranza with all the Revolutionary
leaders organized the Convention of Aguascalientes. No agreement
could be reached. Villa was reelected as chief of the north division.
In 1915 Villa suffered major defeats at Cellaya, León and
In 1920 after Carranza’a assassination Villa promised then
President Huerta he would never take arms again. He retired to
his hacienda in Canutillo, and on July 20, 1923 Villa was shot
#7, Ricardo Flores Magón (1873 – 1992) along with
his brothers Jesús and Enrique began publishing Regeneración,
in August 1900 as a weekly anti Porfirismo newspaper. Ricardo,
along with his brothers was jailed in the late spring of 1901
for attacking a political from Oaxaca, and confined to Belén
prison for a year. After their release they continued their opposition
by published columns in El Hijo de Ahuizote.
Imprisoned again, released and arrested again, they felt it best
to go in exile in San Antonio and published Regeneración
from there. He again moved to St.Louis to keep publishing the
paper. Ricardo formed the Mexican Liberal party and in January
1911 promoted the Baja California uprising. Madero tried to bring
Ricardo into his movement but Flores Magón would have no
part of this and continued to be critical of Madero and later
Victoriano Huerta. .His ideals of freedom and social justice were
expressed in two theatrical works he wrote – Tierra y Libertad
and Verdugos y Victimas. Ricardo Flores Magón was one of
the most influential ideologists of the Mexican Revolution.
#17, Heriberto Jara (1866 – 1939 was a revolutionary from
Veracruz who served as a General in the Constitutionalist Army,
and a politician, having served as a congressional representative
for Veracruz to the constitutional congress of Querétaro.
He was part of the radical group that had a large part in the
edition of Article 123, among others that gave profound meaning
to the constitution. He was one of the first to graduate from
the Antón Lizardo Naval Academy. In 1914 he directed the
cadets from the academy against the North American invasion.
Following the Revolution he served in many political positions
until his retirement from public life. He dedicated his life to
attaining revolutionary ideals.
#18, José Vasconelos (1881 – 1959) was a lawyer
who was a charter member of the Ateneo de la Juventud, of which
a group of young thinkers who banded together and with a few others
Vasconceslos formed a philosophical attack on materialism and
He served as Secretary of education under Obregón, and
as rector of the National University. Throughout his career he
inspired the teachers with a strong sense of nationalistic pride.
Under adverse conditions he brought education to the rural masses,
including the Indians, which he attempted to incorporate into
the mainstream of mestizo society. During 1920 – 1924 over
one thousand schools were built in rural México. During
this period he also began a public library system.
In 1910 he joined the forces of Madero and later joined with
Villa. He was a supporter of the Mexican visual arts, mainly the
muralists. During his position as secretary of education he commissioned
artists to paint murals on the walls of public buildings. And
México’s artistic renaissance was originated. In
1929 he unsuccessfully ran for president.
The coins are currently retailing at $1.50 each from Lois and
Don Bailey Numismatic Services, 250 D South Lyon Ave #139, Hemet
CA 92543. Bailey’s are offering a subscription program,
where by clients will receive periodical shipments as the coins
STATE & FEDERAL COPPER AND
BRASS COINAGE OF MEXICO,
1824 – 1872
By Don Bailey, NLG
First comprehensive update in over thirty years of the coinage
of this financially important era of Mexico’s history.
84 pages, 52 different coin types plus several varieties of coins
and tokens. User friendly; Printed on 28 pound paper, spiral bound,
letter sized with heavy plastic covers.
The overall history of this subject is covered in an overview
of all coins and a separate history for each entity and each entity
has its’ own history with footnotes of historical information.
Send check $35.00 for book and shipping, payable to Don Bailey
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